Why are organs in TCM described so differently? 了解中医脏腑

Updated: Jan 25


Anatomical Model


You may have heard of TCM physicians describing organs using peculiar terms, and talking about bodily functions that differ from what we are familiar with mainstream science.

For example, in western medicine, the heart’s main function is to pump blood around the body. However, in TCM, the “heart” not only deals with circulation of blood, but is also involved in one’s emotions, thoughts and mental state, which in biology, are considered to be aspects of the brain instead. How is it that the two forms of medicine can describe a vital organ so differently?

In this article, we explain briefly how the organ system in TCM came about and why it is so different from our current understanding of organs in modern science.

Organs in modern science

Emphasis on both structure and function

We instinctively think about the human body and our health in terms of the physical anatomy of our body, and the function of any body part is often discussed in relation to its structure. For example, the small intestine’s efficiency in absorbing food is often attributed to the intestinal walls having folds or wrinkles to increase the surface area for better absorption.


Therefore, both the structure and function are important to our understanding of the human body in modern science.

Organs in TCM

More emphasis on function than structure

However, in TCM, the organs are defined in a very different manner. Instead of studying the physical structure of organs intricately, TCM places more emphasis on the function. Through extensive clinical observation, the early TCM physicians discovered that certain functions within the body were somehow related and could be grouped together under a single “organ”. By using herbs that targeted this organ, multiple ailments within that group could be treated.

Example 1: Heart

For example, the ancient TCM physicians discovered that those with heart palpitations (the feeling that your heart is racing or pounding strongly) often have the accompanying symptoms of insomnia, frustration and forgetfulness. By nourishing the “heart”, they not only could ease the heart palpitations, but could also improve one's emotional health, mental well-being and quality of sleep. Therefore, the "heart" in TCM was deemed to not only deal with the circulation of blood, but also with one's consciousness, thoughts, emotions, mental well-being etc. (all of which the ancient Chinese collectively named the "spirit (神)").

Example 2: Kidneys

It was also found that herbs that target the “kidneys” may be used to treat both urinary issues and reproductive issues. Hence the "kidneys" were deemed to have the function of "regulating water and fluids (肾主水)" and are also involved in reproduction. In other words, the “kidneys” in TCM may encompass some aspects of the reproductive system of western medicine as well.

Difference in perspective

Therefore, to better understand the human body from TCM’s point of view, it may be useful to think of organs in TCM as “groups of closely related bodily functions” instead, in order to avoid confusion with the organs of western medicine. Some of these groups have similarities with their organ counterparts in western medicine, while others may be entirely different. This perspective may make it easier for one to understand TCM’s unique approach to the human body. (Note that the study of the human anatomy and physical structure of organs also existed in the history of Chinese Medicine to some extent. However, the functions of the organs carry more significance in a clinical setting.)

Other organs in TCM

The major organs in TCM include the Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lungs and Kidneys. The minor organs include the Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Gall bladder, Bladder and the Triple Burner. These organs will be introduced in future articles.


当中医师描叙人体之器官以及其功能时,许多人均有丈二金刚摸不着头绪的感觉。此因中医对脏腑的认识与现代科学对内脏的了解之间有所差异。

例如,西医认为心脏主要功能是推动血液循环。但从中医的角度来说,心脏除了推动血液以外,还牵联到人的情绪,精神,思维等。然而对西医来说,情绪,思维等之活动乃属于脑部所管理之范围。 为何中西医俩对此主要内脏的认识有如此大的差别呢?

在此文章将从中医学角度简略地解说中医对脏腑的分析,以及为何会与现代医学对人体器官有不同的观点。

从现代科学角度认识内脏

现代科学注重于内脏之结构及功能

现代人是透过人体解剖学及人体结构来了解身体健康状况。当提到人体某个器官的功能时,常会连接到此部分之具体结构。例如小肠吸收营养之效率,乃因小肠内部布满了褶皱的肠壁,小肠能有如此的功能也就归功于它的结构。 故此,器官之具体结构及其所属之功能则奠定了现代科学的基础。

从中医角度认识脏腑

中医注重于脏腑之功能

然而,中医对脏腑的认识偏于脏腑的组合功能,而少提到个别脏腑之具体结构。古代中医师通过长期医疗实践累积所得经验,发现到体内某些功能及生理现象之间有连接关系,由此推理出脏腑功能系统。古代医学家也发现到在治疗某脏腑时,多种有关的病痛都能被缓解。

例子一:心

古代中医师发现到患心悸之病人常伴有失眠,心烦,健忘之症状。通过养“心”之治法,不只能缓解心悸,还可改善病人之情绪、思维活动及睡眠。因此中医对“心”之认识不只有调节血液循环之功能,还与各人的精神、情志、思维及生命活动之体现(或称“心神”)有关。

例子二:肾

在中医界内,患有泌尿系疾病或生殖系统问题之病人都可通过调养肾脏而愈合。因此证实“肾”有调节水液代谢之功能,也于生殖有关。换句话说,中医所谈的“肾”的功能范围可包括西医之生殖系统。

中医对人体独特的看法

从中医角度去认识人体操作的妙法,就是把人体内有互相关联的功能连为一个组合。如此的分组,就能避免对西医器官和功能不同解说的混乱。中医的功能组合有些与西医内脏功能靠近,但有些功能组合则与西医的认识完全不同。 运用此功能组合的理论,盼能助于理解中医对人体独特的看法。 (按语:古代中医学也有包括一定的人体解剖学,也有某些人体结构的记载。然而,临床上多注重于脏腑的功能。)

中医其他的脏腑

五脏包括心,肝,脾,肺,肾。 六腑包括胃,小肠,大肠,胆,膀胱及三焦。 未来的文章将有机会详细地讨论各脏腑之功能。